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The Indus civilization's economy

appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. These advances included bullock-driven carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today, as well as boats. Most of these
boats were probably small, flat- bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of sea-going craft. Archaeologists have discovered a
massive, dredged canal and docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal. Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and
central India, and Mesopotamia. Rig Vedic society was characterized by a nomadic lifestyle, with cattle rearing being the chief occupation. Cattle and cows were held in high esteem and
frequently appear in Rigvedic hymns;
goddesses were often compared to cows, and gods to bulls. Agriculture grew more prominent with time as the community settled down. Money was unknown, and bartering with cattle and
other valuables replaced financial commerce. 
Families were patrilineal, and people prayed for abundance of sons. Society was strictly organized in a system of caste. The four major varnas were Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. 
Those who are outside these caste structure are known as adivasis.
The food of the Rigvedic Aryans consisted of parched grain and cakes, milk and milk products, and various fruits and vegetables. Consumption of meat was also common among, at least among the upper classes. The Rigveda contains many references to animal
sacrifice and meat offered to the gods.

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